Somalia, which is located in the Horn of Africa, is bordered by Ethiopia to the west, Djibouti to the northwest, the Gulf of Aden to the north, the Indian Ocean to the east, and Kenya to the southwest. Composed of a former British protectorate and an Italian colony, the northeast African nation of Somalia was created in 1960 when the two territories merged. In 1991, the downfall of a long-serving authoritarian regime led to two decades of minimal federal governance and civil war between rival clans. Peace talks in 2000 and 2004 led to the establishment of interim governments that failed to provide meaningful security or build governing institutions, and fighting continued. An African Union (AU) peacekeeping mission was instated in 2006 and has been regularly reauthorized.
Ongoing instability was exacerbated in 2011 by the worst drought in six decades, leaving millions of people on the verge of starvation and causing tens of thousands to flee to neighboring Kenya and Ethiopia in search of food. In 2012, an internationally backed federal government was in place with the appointment of a new parliament; parliament then elected a new president. Since that time, the country has progressed on a path to stability and reconstruction.
Despite improved governance, the emergence of an insurgent group called al-Shabab in recent years has prolonged Somalia’s civil conflict. Al-Shabab retains control over some rural regions of Somalia and carries out regular violent bombings and other terrorist attacks targeting civilians, military personnel and bases, government officials, and foreigners. The AU peacekeeping force is still active, though its role shifted in 2010 from ending the civil war to supporting the Government of Somalia in its military efforts to end the al-Shabab insurgency.
||H.E. Mohamed Abdullahi Mohamed “Farmajo”
||H.E. Hassan Ali Khayre
|Minister of Finance
||H.E. Abdirahman Duale Beyle
|g7+ Focal Point
||Mr. Abdirashid S. Ahmed, Senior Advisor of Public Sector and Governance, Office of the Prime Minister Office, Federal Republic of Somalia.
New Deal Implementation
Somalia is a member of the g7+ and has endorsed the New Deal. The federal government established a New Deal Compact in 2013, explicitly designed to be an organizing framework for the delivery of donor assistance in line with New Deal principles. The High-Level Partnership Forum on Somalia in Copenhagen in November 2014 reaffirmed the New Deal as the overall framework for Somalia’s post-conflict transformation, as well as the need to translate the partnership enshrined in the Somali Compact into concrete actions, and the urgency of delivery.