Details Members Countries



Population 808,080 (July 2017 est.)
Independence July 6, 1975 Independence from France
Languages French (official), Arabic (official), Shikomoro (official), Comorian
Form of government Presidential Republic
GDP (2017) $659 million; per capita $1.600


The Union of the Comoros is an archipelago of three islands east of Mozambique and north of Madagascar. An autonomous colony of France since 1961, the people of Comoros voted for independence in 1974 and gained independence the following year. (A fourth island, Mayotte, voted to remain under French administration.) A series of coups over the next two decades contributed to ongoing political instability.
Conflict erupted in 1997 when the islands of Anjouan and Moheli declared independence from the Comoros. After four years of coups and infighting, citizens voted in 2001 to reconvene as a union of semi-autonomous states. Elections followed, and the union was stable until 2007, with the island of Anjouan broke away. Comoran and African Union troops landed on Anjouan in 2008 and deposed its secession leader, returning the island to the union.
Following peaceful elections in 2010 in which President IkililouDhoinine was inaugurated. Legislative elections in 2015 in Comoros were declared free and transparent by international observers.

Government Title Name
President H.E. AzaliAssoumani
Vice-President, Minister of Production, Environment, Energy, Industry and Crafts H.E. FouadMohadji
Vice-President, Minister of Finance, Economy, Budget, Investment & External Trade Charged With Privatization H.E. Mr Mohamed Ali SOILIHI
Vice-President, Minister of Territorial Planning, Urbanism and the Habitat H.E. Nourdine BOURHANE
g7+ Focal Point Mr. Farz Abdallah, Infrastructure Focal Point at Commissariat Général of planning

New Deal Implementation

Comoros has been active an active member of the g7+ since it joined the group in 2012. it It conducted a fragility assessment in early 2014.


The president is the head of state. The president appoints three vice presidents, one from each island. The presidency rotates among the three islands. Presidents are elected in five-year terms; the last presidential election was held on 21 February 2016 and the second round was organised on 10 April 2016. The next is election is originally scheduled for 2021, however the date has been move forward to 2019. The President also appoints the Council of Ministers.
The unicameral parliament, called the Assembly of the Union, consists of 33 members, 24 directly elected members and 9 members indirectly elected by island assemblies. Members serve five-year terms. The next parliamentary election is scheduled for 2020.
Under the Comoros constitution, each of the three islands is semi-autonomous and has its own directly elected government. A 2009 constitutional referendum and subsequent amendment, however, granted more unifying power to the central government; these reforms led to reduced tensions and improved stability. Today, each island has an elected governor and island assembly. The island of Grande Comore has 20 members in its assembly; the island of Anjouan has a 25-member assembly, and the island of Mohéli has a 10-member assembly.

Socioeconomic Status

Political instability and geographic isolation has been a challenge to provision of social services. Limited natural resources, lack of educational opportunities and high unemployment contribute to high poverty rates. Population density and birth rates are also high; more than half of the population is under the age of 20. Due to economic fluctuations, households are particularly vulnerable to short-term poverty. Access to clean water and sanitation is limited, but infrastructural improvements are ongoing.
Mortality rates for children fewer than five are improving, in part due to increased reach and consistency of vaccination campaigns across Comoros’ three islands. Enrolment in technical and vocational education programs is rising, though many secondary school graduates depart Comoros for foreign universities. The 2009-2014 Comoros Poverty Reduction and Growth Strategy Paper focused on (1) Consolidating peace and strengthening good governance; (2) Creating wealth and generating substantial revenues within the framework of pro-poor growth; and (3) Broadening access to basic social services. The plan highlighted cross-disciplinary issues of human rights, gender, statistical capacity, ICTs, and trade policy.

Investment Climate

Comoros’ primary economic activity is agriculture, including fishing, hunting, and forestry. Primarily three crops generate export income: vanilla, cloves, and ylang-ylang. Remittances from the Comorian diaspora account for about 25 precent of Comoros’ GDP. While limited infrastructure and lack of skilled labour are barriers to investment, the government has undertaken structural reforms to improve the fiscal environment, and Comoros recently joined World Bank Group’s Multilateral Investment Guarantee Agency (MIGA) as a means to provide political risk insurance to foreign investors.
Foreign investment is concentrated in the agribusiness, construction and tourism industries; the government and development partners are also seeking donor and private investment in the energy and telecom sectors. Comoros awarded its first offshore oil exploration and development license in 2012, and has since ratified a formal Petroleum Code governing all oil and gas investment.