After independence from France in 1960, the Central African Republic (CAR) was subject to a series of coup d’etats based regimes. By the 1990s, calls for democracy led to the country’s first multi-party democratic elections, which took place in 1993. Civil war erupted after a coup in 2003, and, despite a peace treaty in 2007 and another in 2011, fighting broke out between the 2 main factions in December 2012. French troops intervened in December 2013, followed 2 months later by an EU military operation. Since September 2014, the UN has taken over and expanded the existing peacekeeping mission. In January 2014, H.E. Catherine Samba-Panza was elected interim president by the National Transition Council. She presided over the Bangui National Forum on National Reconciliation in May 2015 and will lead the country into elections due by the end of the year.