Chad

Republic of Chad
Population 11,631,456 (July 2015 est.) The World Fact Book.
Independence 1960, France
Languages French (official), Arabic (official), Sara
Form of government Republic
GDP (2014) $13.95 billion; per capita (2014): $2.600 (the world fact book)

Chad, a landlocked North-central  African country bordered on the north by Libya, on the south by the Central African Republic, on the east by the Republic of Sudan, on the southwest by Cameroon, and on the west by Nigeria and Niger. . Chad gained its independence from France in 1960. Chad's post-independence history has been subject to instability and violence, stemming mostly from tensions between the mainly Arab-Muslim north and the predominantly Christian and animist south. The situation stabilized in the mid-1990s after a series of coups. Chad began a two-year rotation on the National Security Council in January 2014.

Chad’s 2013-2015 National Development Plan identified eight primary objectives: (1) Sustained growth; (2) Food security; (3) Job creation and access to employment; (4) Development of human capital; (5) Private sector development; (6) Development of information and communication technologies (ICTs); (7) Environmental protection and adaptation to climate change; and (8) Improved governance.

Government Title Name
President H.E. Idriss DÉBY
Prime Minister H.E. Kalzeube Pahimi DEUBET
Minister of Economy, Planning and International Cooperation H.E. Ms. Mariam Mahamat NOUR
g7+ Focal Point Mr. MBAIGUEDEM Mbairo, Director General of Planning and International Cooperation

New Deal Implementation

Chad has been a member of the g7+ since 2010, and has subsequently endorsed the New Deal. The National Development Plan 2013-2015 is aligned with New Deal principles and 5 of the 8 objectives are correlated to the New Deal. A New Deal Committee, supported by France and UNDP, has also been set up to examine aid effectiveness.

H.E. Idriss Déby became president in 1990, and was elected in 1996 in the country’s first popular election. He was re-elected in 2001. In 2005, a presidential referendum to amend the constitution to abolish term limits succeeded, and President Déby subsequently won elections in 2006 and 2011. Prime Minister Kalzeube Pahimi Deubet is the current head of government. The cabinet is the Council of Ministers; members are appointed by the President in consultation with the Prime Minister.

The parliament is the unicameral National Assembly. Parliamentary elections were held in 2011, the first since 2002; members are elected to four-year terms. The current president’s party is the leading political party and holds the majority of parliament’s 188 seats; the most successful opposition party holds 10 seats, and 19 smaller parties hold one seat each. Chad’s government is centralized, and local authorities are appointed by the central government.

Increasing school attendance, decreased HIV/AIDS rates, improved access to clean water and a reduction in the poverty rate have led to improvements in Chad’s social welfare. Chad has faced recurring food crises since the 1970s, however, and food insecurity and malnutrition remain challenges. Unemployment among youth and women is high. Resources for provision of public services are limited, but the government has pledged its commitment to build capacity, support public financial management and mobilize domestic resources for social and economic development.

The 2013-2015 National Development Plan emphasizes human capital development as an essential element of poverty reduction. The plan outlines priority areas of education, health, nutrition, water and sanitation, social protection, promotion of equity and gender equality, population, housing, culture, and sports as key targets of improved human capital. The plan also calls for universal access to basic education, improved healthcare services and infrastructure, and strengthening institutional capacity of the water supply and sanitation sector.

Economic activity in Chad is based in the oil, agriculture and construction sectors. The global decline in oil prices in 2014 had an adverse effect on domestic revenue, but higher food prices have benefited exports. The government and development partners have taken steps to diversify the economy, including seeking privatization of state-owned enterprises in the agribusiness, telecommunications, and transport sectors.

The government recognizes the importance of private sector development, a key pillar of the 2013-2015 National Development Plan, but implementation of improved fiscal and regulatory policy is slow. Poor infrastructure, lack of skilled labor, unreliable electricity and weak property rights and land policy are primary obstacles to investment. Government has committed to improving in these areas, however, and foreign investment is increasing, primarily in the oil, mining, telecommunications and banking sectors